The paper explains the legal aspects of the regulation of school fees in India, focusing on Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. It examines, with the help of secondary data, what the current situations in these states are, post-implementation of the Regulation of Collection of Fee Acts. The paper uses existing literature on price controls to examine the economic impact of price control and further tries to understand how private schools in the two states are coping with the problems that these Acts have brought upon them, with the help of both primary data collected from school owners in Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan, and secondary data in the form of newspaper reports.
This paper argues that the current wording and enforcement of S.18 and S.19 of the Right to Education Act goes against the spirit and objective of the constitutional right to education and the RTE Act 2009. Being selective and discriminatory, the enforcement targets private schools only and penalizes them for inadequate compliance with necessary-but-not-sufficient norms. The paper further argues that S.18, 19 and the Schedule of RTE Act must be amended on the lines of Gujarat Rules to become output-focused, applicable and enforceable to both private as well as government schools and certification-based rather than licensure-based. The paper provides a draft amendment to achieve the said objectives.
With the objective of shifting regulatory focus towards some of the above issues, Centre for Civil Society brought together some of India’s eminent educationists and thought leaders to identify specific amendments to the RTE Act, which would ensure quality education for all in India. Key concerns regarding the structure and impact of the RTE were discussed, and based on this, recommendations for amendments to the RTE Act 2009 have been drafted. RTE 2.0: Building Consensus on Amendments truly aimed at weeding out the pain areas in the existing scheme of things, finding out what works and what doesn’t, and introducing actual amendments to the text of the Act.
This is an in-depth research conducted in two districts of Punjab – Barnala and Mansa – to understand the impact of school closures on various stakeholders namely students, parents, school owners and teachers. The purpose of conducting this study has been two fold. Firstly, to understand any monetary and non-monetary implications of school closure on the various stakeholders and secondly, to explore any irregularities involved in the procedural mechanism for shutting down a school. The field study was conducted in 32 schools covering both districts in the form of Focussed group discussions (FGD) and Semi-Structured Interviews (SSI).
The Indian education ecosystem today consists of the government, private sector, and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) that have helped provide education to millions of children. The enactment of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE), in 2009 should have enhanced private sector participation manifold. However, given the current legal framework, the environment is not conducive for the entry and sustenance of private players.
Given this context, this paper seeks to examine the current legislative framework in Delhi and Gujarat, which is acting as a bottleneck for edupreneurs to enter the education sector.