School education in India is governed by both the Union and state governments. At the national level, the Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009 provides a framework for schools, states have enacted ~145 Acts to govern school education. State education departments wield power to issue circulars, regulate private schools, and run government schools. As a result, these departments act as both the players and regulators in school education.
Recognising this conflict of interest, the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 recommended setting up an independent regulator—the State School Standards Authority (SSSA). This regulator will monitor all schools (government and private) on some minimum standards, ensuring regulatory symmetry. Setting up the SSSA will require a modification of existing laws and taking stock of the current status of K-12 education in states.
To chart the way forward for Delhi, this report examines its regulatory framework, highlights its hits and misses and reviews how Delhi performs on education quality, infrastructure, equity, and learning outcomes.